Donald Thompson

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					      Chapter 8: Memory        Open-Resource Test  Posted Tuesday, November 08, 2011/DUE November 10, 2011
                               Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

1. Chess masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is best explained
   in terms of
   A) the spacing effect.
   B) chunking.
   C) the serial position effect.
   D) the method of loci.
   E) flashbulb memory.

2. When Loftus and Palmer asked observers of a filmed car accident how fast the vehicles were going when they “smashed” into
   each other, the observers developed memories of the accident that
   A) omitted some of the most painful aspects of the event.
   B) were more accurate than the memories of observers who had not been immediately questioned about what they saw.
   C) were influenced by whether or not Loftus and Palmer identified themselves as police officers.
   D) portrayed the event as more serious than it had actually been.
   E) demonstrated repression of significant aspects of the accident.

3. Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to
   them. This best illustrates the value of
   A) iconic memory.
   B) semantic encoding.
   C) the method of loci.
   D) automatic processing.
   E) the “peg-word” system.

4. The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of
   A) automatic processing.
   B) memory construction.
   C) repression.
   D) proactive interference.
   E) mood-congruent memory.

5. Although Mr. Yanagita has recently learned to play poker quite well, he cannot consciously remember ever having played
   poker. It is likely that he has suffered damage to his
   A) brainstem.
   B) cerebellum.
   C) hypothalamus.
   D) hippocampus.
   E) motor cortex.

6. Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________.
   A) implicit memory; explicit memory
   B) effortful processing; automatic processing
   C) the serial position effect; the spacing effect
   D) iconic memory; flashbulb memory
   E) meaning; imagery

7. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as
   A) automatic processing.
   B) repression.
   C) chunking.
   D) relearning.
   E) priming.




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                        Chapter 8: Memory    Open-Resource Test      Tuesday, November 08, 2011
 8. Mnemonic devices such as the “peg-word” system make effective use of
    A) flashbulb memory.
    B) visual imagery.
    C) state-dependent memory.
    D) the serial position effect.
    E) implicit memory.

 9. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being
    utilized?
    A) recall
    B) relearning
    C) recognition
    D) misinformation
    E) reconstruction

10. With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological
    and psychiatric associations suggest that
    A) the accumulated experiences of our lives are all preserved somewhere in our minds.
    B) the more stressful an experience is, the more quickly it will be consciously forgotten.
    C) repression is the most common mechanism underlying the failure to recall early childhood abuse.
    D) professional therapists can reliably distinguish between their clients' true and false childhood memories.
    E) adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.

11. The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of
    A) rehearsal.
    B) chunking.
    C) visual imagery.
    D) automatic processing.
    E) flashbulb memory.

12. When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her
    own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates
    A) proactive interference.
    B) implicit memory.
    C) the self-reference effect.
    D) the misinformation effect.
    E) mood-congruent memory.

13. For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her
    experience most clearly illustrates the nature of _______ memory.
    A) iconic
    B) flashbulb
    C) recall
    D) explicit
    E) implicit

14. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the
    A) hippocampus.
    B) cerebellum.
    C) hypothalamus.
    D) motor cortex.
    E) corpus callosum.

15. During the course of a day, people may unconsciously encode the sequence of the day's events. This best illustrates
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) automatic processing.
    C) rosy retrospection.
    D) echoic memory.
    E) short term memory.



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                        Chapter 8: Memory        Open-Resource Test       Tuesday, November 08, 2011
16. Incest survivors who lack conscious memories of their sexual abuse may sometimes be told that they are simply in a stage of
    “denial” and “repression.” This explanation for their lack of abuse memories emphasizes
    A) proactive interference.
    B) encoding failure.
    C) the misinformation effect.
    D) source amnesia.
    E) retrieval failure.

17. When asked to recall their attitudes of 10 years ago regarding marijuana use, people offer recollections closer to their current
    views than to those they actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates
    A) memory construction.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) the self-reference effect.
    D) mood-congruent memory.
    E) repression.

18. Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to
    A) motivated forgetting.
    B) the misinformation effect.
    C) retroactive interference.
    D) encoding failure.
    E) long-term potentiation.

19. Students often remember more information from a course that spans an entire semester than from a course that is completed in
    an intensive three-week learning period. This best illustrates the importance of
    A) long-term potentiation.
    B) the serial position effect.
    C) automatic processing.
    D) implicit memory.
    E) the spacing effect.

20. The fact that elderly people are often less able than younger adults to recall recently learned information can be best explained
    in terms of the greater difficulty older people have with
    A) automatic processing.
    B) iconic memory.
    C) state-dependent memory.
    D) retrieval.
    E) implicit memory.

21. Most Americans still have accurate flashbulb memories of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. This best illustrates that memory
    formation is facilitated by
    A) retrieval cues.
    B) the serial position effect.
    C) source amnesia.
    D) the body's release of stress hormones.
    E) long-term potentiation.

22. Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results
    from a failure in
    A) storage.
    B) encoding.
    C) rehearsal.
    D) retrieval.
    E) automatic processing.




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                        Chapter 8: Memory         Open-Resource Test       Tuesday, November 08, 2011
23. By creating an outline in which specific facts and theories are located within the larger framework of major topics and
    subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she reads in her college textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of
    A) hierarchical organization.
    B) the method of loci.
    C) the serial position effect.
    D) automatic processing.
    E) the spacing effect.

24. Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents of that
    chapter when he is
    A) depressed.
    B) happy.
    C) relaxed.
    D) unemotional.
    E) excited.

25. The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
    A) implicit memory.
    B) iconic memory.
    C) proactive interference.
    D) working memory.
    E) semantic encoding.

26. When Hailey told her roommate about the chemistry exam she had just completed, she knowingly exaggerated its difficulty.
    Subsequently, her memory of the exam was that it was as difficult as she had reported it to be. This best illustrates
    A) flashbulb memory.
    B) the misinformation effect.
    C) mood-congruent memory.
    D) the self-reference effect.
    E) proactive interference.

27. As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on past experiences and our current expectations.
    This best illustrates
    A) implicit memory.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) the spacing effect.
    D) memory construction.
    E) serial position effect.

28. After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old
    bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of
    A) encoding failure.
    B) source amnesia.
    C) retroactive interference.
    D) proactive interference.
    E) automatic processing.

29. When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory
    difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure.
    A) rehearsal
    B) storage
    C) encoding
    D) retrieval
    E) automatic processing




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                        Chapter 8: Memory      Open-Resource Test       Tuesday, November 08, 2011
30. Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates
    A) source amnesia.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) the serial position effect.
    D) motivated forgetting.
    E) the next-in-line effect.

31. For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His
    experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
    A) short-term
    B) iconic
    C) mood-congruent
    D) implicit
    E) echoic

32. Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates
    A) the self-reference effect.
    B) source amnesia.
    C) proactive interference.
    D) rosy retrospection.
    E) the spacing effect.

33. Donald Thompson, an Australian psychologist, was an initial suspect in a rape case. The rape victim confused her memories of
    Thompson and the actual rapist because she had seen Thompson's image on TV shortly before she was attacked. The victim's
    false recollection best illustrates
    A) state-dependent memory.
    B) mood-congruent memory.
    C) the spacing effect.
    D) source amnesia.
    E) the next-in-line effect.

34. Research participants who were exposed to very convincing arguments about the desirability of frequent toothbrushing
    misrecalled how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks. This best illustrates
    A) the self-reference effect.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) motivated forgetting.
    D) the spacing effect.
    E) semantic encoding.

35. Mrs. Ramos claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Memory experts are
    most likely to doubt the reliability of her memory due to their awareness of
    A) implicit memory.
    B) the self-reference effect.
    C) long-term potentiation.
    D) infantile amnesia.
    E) the spacing effect.

36. Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all
    his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates
    A) repression.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) retroactive interference.
    D) the serial position effect.
    E) the spacing effect.




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                        Chapter 8: Memory        Open-Resource Test        Tuesday, November 08, 2011
37. The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides
    evidence that forgetting may involve
    A) encoding failure.
    B) repression.
    C) implicit memory loss.
    D) the hippocampus.
    E) interference.

38. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as
    A) recall.
    B) long-term potentiation.
    C) automatic processing.
    D) state-dependent memory.
    E) chunking.

39. Which of the following poses the greatest threat to the credibility of children's recollections of sexual abuse?
    A) the serial position effect
    B) the spacing effect
    C) the misinformation effect
    D) long-term potentiation
    E) the next-in-line effect

40. When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the person's name by repeating it to himself several times.
    Marcel makes use of a strategy called
    A) chunking.
    B) automatic processing.
    C) the method of loci.
    D) the next-in-line effect.
    E) rehearsal.

41. The process of encoding refers to
    A) the persistence of learning over time.
    B) the recall of information previously learned.
    C) getting information into memory.
    D) the motivated forgetting of painful memories.
    E) a clear memory of an emotionally significant event.

42. Adults who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led by therapists to believe that
    their memory difficulties are due to
    A) memory storage failure.
    B) the misinformation effect.
    C) memory encoding failure.
    D) proactive interference.
    E) repression.

43. Iconic memory refers to
    A) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory.
    B) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second.
    C) the effortlessly processed incidental information about the timing and frequency of events.
    D) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.
    E) important events often encoded through flashbulb memory.

44. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as
    a powerful
    A) echoic memory.
    B) retrieval cue.
    C) implicit memory.
    D) spacing effect.
    E) mnemonic.



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                        Chapter 8: Memory        Open-Resource Test      Tuesday, November 08, 2011
45. Speed-reading complex material yields little long-term retention because it inhibits
    A) the serial position effect.
    B) retroactive interference.
    C) the next-in-line effect.
    D) proactive interference.
    E) rehearsal.

46. The process of getting information into memory is called
    A) priming.
    B) chunking.
    C) encoding.
    D) registering.
    E) storage.

47. Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories?
    A) Ebbinghaus
    B) Loftus
    C) Peterson
    D) Sperling
    E) Freud

48. The process of getting information into memory is called
    A) priming.
    B) chunking.
    C) encoding.
    D) registering.
    E) storing.

49. Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
    A) Pavlov
    B) James
    C) Loftus
    D) Freud
    E) Ebbinghaus

50. “The magical number seven, plus or minus two” refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.
    A) short-term
    B) explicit
    C) flashbulb
    D) implicit
    E) sensory

51. Which of the following best explains why Ebbinghaus found the task of learning new lists of nonsense syllables increasingly
    difficult as his research career progressed?
    A) the spacing effect
    B) source amnesia
    C) proactive interference
    D) retroactive interference
    E) misattribution

52. Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide
    whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of
    A) the method of loci.
    B) the “peg-word” system.
    C) automatic processing.
    D) semantic encoding.
    E) the next-in-line effect.




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                       Chapter 8: Memory         Open-Resource Test    Tuesday, November 08, 2011
53. Reading a romantic novel caused Consuela to recall some old experiences with a high school boyfriend. The effect of the novel
    on Consuela's memory retrieval is an illustration of
    A) priming.
    B) chunking.
    C) source amnesia.
    D) automatic processing.
    E) the spacing effect.

54. Explicit memory is to ________ as implicit memory is to ________.
    A) epinephrine; serotonin
    B) skill memory; fact memory
    C) automatic processing; effortful processing
    D) long-term memory; short-term memory
    E) hippocampus; cerebellum

55. The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely due to
    A) encoding failure.
    B) the spacing effect.
    C) retroactive interference.
    D) source amnesia.
    E) retrieval failure.

56. Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.
    A) short-term memory; long-term memory
    B) explicit memory; implicit memory
    C) visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
    D) automatic processing; effortful processing
    E) flashbulb memory; implicit memory

57. A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.
    A) iconic
    B) implicit
    C) echoic
    D) long-term
    E) short-term

58. Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of
    A) chunking.
    B) imagery.
    C) priming.
    D) rehearsal.
    E) implicit memory.

59. When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the
    words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of
    A) implicit memory.
    B) source amnesia.
    C) semantic encoding.
    D) memory decay.
    E) state-dependent memory.

60. Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband
    had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) repression.
    C) the serial position effect.
    D) automatic processing.
    E) priming.




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                       Chapter 8: Memory     Open-Resource Test    Tuesday, November 08, 2011
61. Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.
    A) short-term; long-term
    B) long-term; short-term
    C) implicit; explicit
    D) explicit; implicit
    E) iconic; echoic

62. Short-term memory is slightly better
    A) for auditory information than for visual information.
    B) for random letters than for random digits.
    C) in children than in adults.
    D) in females than in males.
    E) for sensory information than for semantic information.

63. An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining
    A) the serial position effect.
    B) the spacing effect.
    C) repression.
    D) state-dependent memory.
    E) infantile amnesia.

64. The method of loci is to imagery as acronyms are to
    A) priming.
    B) rehearsal.
    C) chunking.
    D) recency.
    E) spacing.

65. Rehearsal is to encoding as retrieval cues are to
    A) chunking.
    B) relearning.
    C) priming.
    D) repression.
    E) the spacing effect.

66. The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people
    to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of
    A) automatic processing.
    B) the next-in-line effect.
    C) rehearsal.
    D) flashbulb memory.
    E) the method of loci.

67. Our schemas often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to
    appreciating the importance of
    A) long-term potentiation.
    B) automatic processing.
    C) memory construction.
    D) the spacing effect.
    E) visual encoding.

68. Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as
    short a time as
    A) 1 second.
    B) 12 seconds.
    C) 1 minute.
    D) 12 minutes.
    E) 1 hour.




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                        Chapter 8: Memory          Open-Resource Test        Tuesday, November 08, 2011
69. Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She
    remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and
    that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) hierarchical organization.
    C) automatic processing.
    D) the “peg-word” system.
    E) the method of loci.

70. One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label
    most of their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires
    A) automatic processing.
    B) implicit memory.
    C) acoustic encoding.
    D) source amnesia.
    E) semantic encoding.

71. Your ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) implicit memory.
    C) acoustic encoding.
    D) chunking.
    E) state-dependent memory.

72. Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if
    she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) the serial position effect.
    C) mood-congruent memory.
    D) chunking.
    E) automatic processing.

73. The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name.
    Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by
    A) a physical decay of stored memory.
    B) encoding failure.
    C) state-dependent memory.
    D) retrieval failure.
    E) repression.

74. The process of getting information out of memory is called
    A) priming.
    B) encoding.
    C) relearning.
    D) retrieval.
    E) rehearsal.

75. The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________
    effect.
    A) serial position
    B) misinformation
    C) next-in-line
    D) priming
    E) spacing




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